|NATURAL GAS ... FACT OR FICTION ?
By: Prof. Simón Hebert Faull
The so-called Gas Natural, is known since ancient times, is also known as "GAS of Swamps. Because while actually being a mixture of gases, is methane (CH4) which is involved in
higher-proportion. The other gas as a key component in the so-called NATURAL GAS IS hydrogen sulfide (H2S) .- The ratios between these two gases is highly variable, but generally
are between sixty and ninety percent (60% -90%) for methane and forty to ten percent (40% to 10%) for other gas or hydrogen sulfide , with the latter, which brings the smell of rotten
eggs, because methane does not smell or color has to help identification.
This mixture of gases known as GAS NATURAL, appears often in nature, so spontaneous, especially in toilets, crap Pig, stagnant water with decaying plant material, as well as
determining "inflows of life with digestion by fermentation, including human beings and most of their herds.
In the basement is in two ways fundamentals. The first is associated gas in the oil fields and the second way is when it comes to deposits of deep, especially heavy or extra heavy crude,
where natural gas is goes to the upper reservoir and then extracting it without reaching the level of deposits of oil, which become very difficult for a bitumen extraction. The simplest
way to increase the API of these deposits is by using a gas injection system to levels that are below the upper level of deposits.
Long time, the Royal Dutch Sell programs conducted re-Natural gas underground to enhance the quality of its crude and thus make them more valuable, but the dynamics of prices and
the disproportionate increase in the demand of Natural Gas Energetic purposes, it became a decisive factor reproduction and gas deposits are negotiated, they are not considering
removing the residual oil, the possibility of extraction.
The natural gas from the chemical point of view is very valuable, because the OR METHANE (CH4) is the most basic of unsaturated hydrocarbons has many applications, especially as
Oxide Reducer in steel and many industrial applications, but their utmost importance when it is used as feedstock for the petrochemical industry...
- When the sulfide HYDROGEN is very high, reducing their heat output and then you REDUCE Energetic Importance Especially in Venezuelan gas fields is very high proportion of
sulphide-Hydrogen. The separation of the two dominant Gas is very expensive, including distillation fractionated, BECAUSE THE INDEX liquefaction is high; for methane are
THREE ATMOSPHERES (300 kgs/cm2).
Intends to use the gas as fuel for vehicles Natural, already has an IMPORTANT FAILURE IN VENEZUELA, PDVSA, where the State has invested huge sums of money, according to
official data, was more than three billion U.S. dollars, to install dosing equipment and use of gas in car engines, but was a failure because it was not usable, given the country's
topography, with slopes and high heat output with an average of about 240 K calorías/cm3, being the Gasoline around 760 K calories. and then there is the experience of the difficulty
of applying natural gas as fuel in vehicles, not just because its efficiency is very low, which makes it unprofitable, but because Fumes produced by the engines using natural gas as fuel,
are exaggerated AGGRESSIVE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AND life.
The combustion of methane itself, involves a series of associated events that are fatal to living beings, but if an immediate long term because these ARISING IN THE ATMOSPHERE
TO REMAIN VERY LOW ALTITUDE, BEING PART OF THE NORMAL BREATHING human being Fumes produced by internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas,
LEADING deformative and potentially CONGENITAL IN STOCKS AND THEREFORE WE HAVE A REAL EXAMPLE IN THE TOWN OF SAN FRANCISCO IN THE
STATE OF ZULIA THE REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA, OIL AREA KNOWN.
In this population, for decades, has been "BURNING NATURAL GAS TO ATMOSPHERE OPEN", as a resource for pressure regulation of the extractive industry's Petroleum.-
combustion occurs in a few lighter-called "mechosos or Mechurrios" by residents, but is to be fed with natural gas, but that gas is not burning because it is highly volatile, but if a
permanent atmosphere of open burning, but which is in combustion, NO ES EL NATURAL GAS!. But the immediate product of oxidation, which is methanol.
CHANGING methanol from methane. BY DIRECT OXYDiZED SLOW: CH4 + O2 = O + CH3OH
The remaining oxygen is associated with hydrogen sulfide IN NATURAL GAS AS FOLLOWS:
H2S + O = H2SO and this in turn oxidized and continues:
H2SO2 + O2 = H2 O + SO3 = H2SO4! SULFURIC ACID is that?
This SULFURIC ACID ENTERS THE ATMOSPHERE then hydrated with relative air humidity, rises and falls as "acid rain".
When cooking using natural gas, quite the same!
Returning to the combustion of natural gas, we have seen that what goes into combustion, it is methanol or a methyl alcohol, which for being flame retardant, is not burned in its
entirety and pass "oil to the environment."
Alcohol is like this failed, or that the same is mixed with water or oil
It is water-soluble, lip soluble in the living has the body that passes by the membranes, especially those of the respiratory tract and digestive tract, causing extensive damage, such as
altered behavior, progressive loss of vision, which is evidence that in areas of oil production and refining activities which are "natural gas burners in the environment," the sale of lenses
is increased compared to other regions and in regions such as Kentucky, it is common to see groups of individuals go blind, Whiskey made for eating with "wood alcohol, which is
Everything is due to that methanol addition to "COMPLETELY NO BURN" SUBMIT ADDITIONAL OTHER REACTIONS.
The first is:
CH3OH Decomposes WELL: CH3OH -> CH2OH + CH2 OH => CH2O + H2O .- IS FORMALDEHYDE AND WATER, the first being a grayish dust that Polymerizes at 37 º C
which is the average temperature of humans. That dust enters the lungs of people and creates a kind of intermediate between MEMBRANE AND PULMONARY ALVEOLAR AIR,
reducing the capacity of breathing of the people.-in campaigns for the kitchens of the houses, you can appreciate the presence of dust, just move your hand .-
But also, another negative element in the combustion of methanol and the formation of other acid: acetic acid WELL:
CH3OH + C => CH3 COOH
This acid, widely used in the salad dressing at very low concentrations (5%) is actually a very strong acid and pass into the environment, but subsequently declined to be part of acid rain,
which if we add the other acids formed by the combustion of methane, which are:
We then aqua rigid, albeit at very low concentrations, but it affects significantly the environment and living things to insert into: ANIMALS AND PLANTS.
REALLY SEVERE MEASURES BE TAKEN TO CONTROL THE USE AND ABUSE OF EXTENDED NATURAL GAS CALL FOR BEING TOO AGGRESSIVE
COMBUSTION OF ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND life.
USE OF NATURAL GAS AS FUEL FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES.
The use of natural gas as fuel in internal combustion engine is something that the OIL INDUSTRY HAS TRIED FOR YEARS.
IN THE PAST, THE FLEETS OF THESE COMPANIES WAS conditioning Using NATURAL GAS, ESPECIALLY in flat areas, where there was DEMAND FOR POWER AND
WHY moved ZERO COST OF FUEL FOR YOUR CAR, BUT THE LOW POWER GENERATED AND OTHER CHARGES MAINTENANCE, it required to use JUST IN
GASOLINE AND DIESEL HEAVY EQUIPMENT .- A few years ago, have tried to do the same in the fleets of third world countries, with negative results, but in Colombia, Brazil
and Argentina have extended their relatively use, using a "dual system" (Gas - Gasoline), with the real business in the sale of equipment and not the sale of fuel, but a closers analysis,
DETERMINES IS OVER BUT THE inconvenient Open Burning OR OPEN ATMOSPHERE.
COMBUSTION OF NATURAL GAS IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
burning along the so-called OTTO CYCLE in internal combustion engines has very special characteristics that should be taken into account with respect to the type of fuel used.
The first thing that must be taken into account, is that the combustion occurs under special conditions of volume, pressure and temperature, so they are repetitive cycles is always the
same conditions and any variation would only be present in the composition of air entering the engine.
The composition of natural gas is used, really, is not homogeneous, because that has not been addressed GAS BEYOND odorisation USING FILTERS AND PARTIALLY
This is a mixed combustion, where in addition to the air, involving at least two gases: methane and hydrogen sulfide.
As we have explained, methane is non-combustible because it is highly volatile; WHAT IS BURNING, THE MATENOL, METHYL ALCOHOL WITH A VERY particular
FEATURES AND PROCEED TO ANALYZE THE exhausted.- MOTOR Actually, the light spirit, TO was one of the ways to develop this original type of engine, UNTIL appeared
Benzene present CHANGE AND IS ATTEMPTING RADICAL.- Using natural gas as fuel, is trying to back More From HUNDRED YEARS IN THE TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT OF Fuel ENGINES.
It is very important, considering that this type of combustion occurs:
In the world of science are important similarities and could begin this part of the analysis, defining the chemistry of production of methanol from natural gas, according to Patent
ALLAN WELINGTON FAULL.
The methanol produced from natural gas (methane) in a series of three reactions:
CH4 + H2O <=> CO + 3H2 + ΔRH = +206 KJmol-1
2.-PUSH THE REACTION OF WATER, USING A NICKEL CATALYST FOR A º C
CO + H2O <=> CO2 + H2 + ΔR H = +206 kjmol-1
2H2 + CO <=> CH3OH ΔRH = -92 kjmol-1
Using zinc and copper catalysts, we have a final result:
CO + CO2 + 5H2 => 2CH3OH + H2O + Δt (heat)
OH 2CH3 <=> CH3OCH3 + H2O
The methanol can be converted into gasoline with the Mobil process, starting with dehydration on zealots catalyst ZMS-5 for a gas with 80% of C5 hydrocarbon products .
Methanol or Methyl alcohol is a colorless liquid with a boiling point of 65 º C. Alcohol-This can be mixed with a wide range of organic liquids such as water; solvent widely used as
household and industrial applications; is popular in homes as a component of the spirit of metamilato or disinfectant as mercurochrome.
Methanol is the basis of many chemical elements, such as Formal due Dimetilterephalato, sheeting Methyl, methyl methycrilate, acetic acid, blocks and sheeting Methyl, gasoline, etc.-
Methanol is the basis of all the synthetic resin that used in yarns, fabrics, utensils covered many more, so its value is enormous industrial and therefore! Burned as fuel!
It’s a complete waste.
Professor Simon Hebert Faull, although that process is under patent pending, it is a section of their physical plant-CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES OF PROCESSED, which are designed
for treatment of waste (garbage) in a comprehensive manner.
When analyzing COMBUSTION NATURAL GAS IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES, derived from that analysis, all the necessary methodology to obtain a wide variety of
products from methane or natural gas (CH4), APPEARS ASSOCIATED AS ALMOST ALWAYS, THE Sulfide Hydrogen (H2S).
Internal combustion engines operating according to the Otto cycle called, are as follows:
1.-Open an Intake valve when the piston makes its downward career, enters the ambient air, a mixture called "stoichiometric" along with the fuel, which is either a hydrocarbon, which
can be gasoline, alcohol gas. methods are used, which only penetrates "air" and after a tour of the piston or be neutral in this lower hydrocarbons is supplied using a pump to injection.-
Called carburetors, although there are already in use regular.- We can conclude that the fuel and air mixture entering the cylinder or within this mix, then that mixture is compressed to
some degree for the career of a rising piston, which produces "a spark" that "burning" the mixture, which produces an expansion of air that pushes the piston down and finally, opening
the exhaust valve, the products of combustion are expelled to the environment. But, that is what is expelled to the environment? That is the fight between those who defend the
current combustion engines and those who oppose them.
They are still gasoline hydrocarbons more widespread use and the less damage to the environment, despite their loss of quality, motivated to seek better returns from internal combustion
engines, has increased the compression rate and Additives used for the purpose of delaying the start of combustion is, the problem is not that the mixture is burned, but the mixture
begins to burn WHERE YOUR OPTIMAL ENERGY, reacts as the largest possible number of molecules present according to the laws governing the chemical association, but since the
reaction time is very short, not all the molecules present within reaction and thus we have that in the exhaust gas molecules appear to "HC" because not all molecules of this class suffer
"cracking" and falls RAW and the presence of molecules of that class, TO BE USED FOR THAT "Anti additives that retard the reaction when the index increases the Octane Fuel
Engines High Compression "This not only contributes to the deterioration of the environment, but also decreases the available energy of the corresponding cylinder, is something that
the engineers of the automotive industry knows that, but that silence," these engines suffer from high frequency vibrations disparity in functionality is that not all pistons with cylinders,
the same troop strength in the expansion stroke. This produces cracks in cylinder walls, piston heads, rings and sweep control, valves and combustion chambers, but the effect extends
beyond the elements that might be out of the engine, simply by "RESONANCE".
Let us follow step by step what happens in an internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas.
Not get the intimate details and homographs to abacuses to the proportionality of the different gases present, but not quantify, because it is not necessary, since we are interested in
determining the quality of combustion and Fumes Environmental ONLY .-
Let us assume that natural gas is formed by simple methane (CH4) and by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the other element necessary to produce combustion oxygen is present in the air; by
definition, is the association COMBUSTION Direct oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) to produce water, but is not as simple as it looks.
To reach the final molecule, the water molecules, be detected to date, not less than fourteen (14) reaction, always bowing or absorbs heat, until finally, is the dominant heat transfer and
therefore the temperature increase, which means that combustion produces water not allowed to see her, but it is necessary to "PICK UP THE produced water "by condensation of its
original form, which is vapor-Agua. The different ways that you can get the" HC "essential carbohydrates or hydrocarbons for use in a combustion process, is associated in some way
because hydrogen is too active for oxygen and therefore very difficult control. Specifically: H2 + O2 + H2O PRODUCES NO O!: ALL YOU HAVE TO FOLLOW A CHEMICAL
PROCESS, WHERE THE FINAL PRODUCT IF "H2O." -Consider the behavior of CH4 (methane) CHELA WITH OXYGEN:
CH4 + O2 => CH3OH + O-O IS THE FIRST RESPONSE TO THIS IS THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE "METHANE (CH4) in methanol (CH3OH), and oxidation DIRECT
on Oxygen, which is adjacent to The Molecule methane and oxidized in the same way, thus, two (2) OF METHANOL MOLECULES.
Now let's see what happens with the air and one molecule of hydrogen sulphide is also present in natural gas: H2S + O2 => O + H2SO
This residual oxygen can go to a molecule of CH4 and CH3OH is transformed into methanol or another can also oxidize H2S molecule and get another molecule H2SO.
The first phase of the chemical reactions in the process of combustion of natural gas is
the production of:
1. One or two molecules of methanol
2. One or two molecules of sulfur oxide or H2SO as he says.
In that Tetra Ring of four carbon atoms, with a corresponding hydrogen atom, a couple of HC which is replaced by a couple "oh" or Oxidrile, to form methyl
alcohol or METANOL. usually assumes that two pairs "OH" should be associated to produce water as follows:
OH + OH => H2O + O but this does not happen, but the molecule of CH3OH Methanol captures a carbon atom of the remnants and produces:
CH3OH + C => IS CH3COOH acetic acid.
Moreover, the H2SO associated with the remaining oxygen and produces H2SO2 is sulfur dioxide.